Table 5

Genetic moderation of the reform's impact on educational attainment

HLMM vPGS, Educational Outcome
Left School at Age 16 or LaterA-Level CertificationO Levels or CSEA Levels
No Controls
(1)
Controls
(2)
No Controls
(3)
Controls
(4)
No Controls
(5)
Controls
(6)
No Controls
(7)
Controls
(8)
vPGS −0.059*** −0.040*** −0.063*** −0.044*** −0.008 −0.007 −0.055*** −0.037*** 
 (0.003) (0.005) (0.003) (0.005) (0.004) (0.007) (0.004) (0.006) 
Post-Reform 0.153*** 0.143*** 0.053*** 0.053*** 0.058*** 0.059*** −0.005 −0.005 
 (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.011) (0.011) (0.009) (0.009) 
mPGS  0.022***  0.021***  −0.0002  0.021*** 
  (0.005)  (0.005)  (0.007)  (0.006) 
vPGS × Post-Reform 0.048*** 0.033*** 0.036*** 0.031*** 0.035*** 0.034*** 0.001 −0.003 
 (0.004) (0.007) (0.005) (0.007) (0.006) (0.010) (0.005) (0.009) 
mPGS × Post-Reform  −0.017*  −0.005  −0.001  −0.003 
  (0.007)  (0.007)  (0.010)  (0.008) 
Constant 0.779*** 0.478** 0.809*** 0.004 0.557*** 0.247 0.253*** −0.242 
 (0.004) (0.147) (0.005) (0.156) (0.006) (0.206) (0.005) (0.178) 
Number of Observations 25,690 25,690 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 
R2 .098 .117 .055 .072 .019 .027 .016 .025 
Adjusted R2 .098 .115 .055 .070 .018 .025 .016 .023 
HLMM vPGS, Educational Outcome
Left School at Age 16 or LaterA-Level CertificationO Levels or CSEA Levels
No Controls
(1)
Controls
(2)
No Controls
(3)
Controls
(4)
No Controls
(5)
Controls
(6)
No Controls
(7)
Controls
(8)
vPGS −0.059*** −0.040*** −0.063*** −0.044*** −0.008 −0.007 −0.055*** −0.037*** 
 (0.003) (0.005) (0.003) (0.005) (0.004) (0.007) (0.004) (0.006) 
Post-Reform 0.153*** 0.143*** 0.053*** 0.053*** 0.058*** 0.059*** −0.005 −0.005 
 (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.011) (0.011) (0.009) (0.009) 
mPGS  0.022***  0.021***  −0.0002  0.021*** 
  (0.005)  (0.005)  (0.007)  (0.006) 
vPGS × Post-Reform 0.048*** 0.033*** 0.036*** 0.031*** 0.035*** 0.034*** 0.001 −0.003 
 (0.004) (0.007) (0.005) (0.007) (0.006) (0.010) (0.005) (0.009) 
mPGS × Post-Reform  −0.017*  −0.005  −0.001  −0.003 
  (0.007)  (0.007)  (0.010)  (0.008) 
Constant 0.779*** 0.478** 0.809*** 0.004 0.557*** 0.247 0.253*** −0.242 
 (0.004) (0.147) (0.005) (0.156) (0.006) (0.206) (0.005) (0.178) 
Number of Observations 25,690 25,690 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 26,012 
R2 .098 .117 .055 .072 .019 .027 .016 .025 
Adjusted R2 .098 .115 .055 .070 .018 .025 .016 .023 

p< .10; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001

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