Table 1

Types of moderation that recent gene–environment (G×E) studies examine

StudyOutcomeEnvironmentPGS Used to Examine
Moderation
Barcellos et al. (2018)  BMI Education reform BMI 
Liu and Guo (2015)  BMI Childhood and adult socioeconomic status BMI 
Amin et al. (2017)  Educational attainment Educational attainment BMI 
Trejo et al. (2018)  Educational attainment, job status School socioeconomic status, school stratification, environment-agnostic heterogeneity in school-level random slopes on PGS Educational attainment 
Schmitz and Conley (2017)  Educational attainment Veteran status (instrumented with Vietnam draft lottery) Educational attainment 
Herd et al. (2019)  Educational attainment Gender/cohort Educational attainment 
Robinette et al. (2019)  Type 2 diabetes Neighborhood disorder Type 2 diabetes 
Domingue et al. (2017)  Depressive symptoms Spousal loss
 
Subjective well-being, depression 
Halldorsdottir et al. (2019)  Depression Childhood abuse Depression 
Mullins et al. (2016)  Depression Childhood stressful life events and trauma Depression 
Papageorge and Thom (2020)  Educational attainment Family socioeconomic status Educational attainment 
StudyOutcomeEnvironmentPGS Used to Examine
Moderation
Barcellos et al. (2018)  BMI Education reform BMI 
Liu and Guo (2015)  BMI Childhood and adult socioeconomic status BMI 
Amin et al. (2017)  Educational attainment Educational attainment BMI 
Trejo et al. (2018)  Educational attainment, job status School socioeconomic status, school stratification, environment-agnostic heterogeneity in school-level random slopes on PGS Educational attainment 
Schmitz and Conley (2017)  Educational attainment Veteran status (instrumented with Vietnam draft lottery) Educational attainment 
Herd et al. (2019)  Educational attainment Gender/cohort Educational attainment 
Robinette et al. (2019)  Type 2 diabetes Neighborhood disorder Type 2 diabetes 
Domingue et al. (2017)  Depressive symptoms Spousal loss
 
Subjective well-being, depression 
Halldorsdottir et al. (2019)  Depression Childhood abuse Depression 
Mullins et al. (2016)  Depression Childhood stressful life events and trauma Depression 
Papageorge and Thom (2020)  Educational attainment Family socioeconomic status Educational attainment 

Notes: The table presents a (nonexhaustive) list of recent gene by environment studies that use a PGS as the measure of genotype. With the exception of Domingue et al. (2017), all studied outcome moderation, or how the impact of an environmental trigger or buffer on an outcome varies by an individual's genetic propensity toward that same outcome.

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