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Table 2

Descriptive statistics of outcome and predictor variables

Full SampleLess Than High SchoolHigh SchoolSome CollegeCollege Degree+
Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD 
Percentage of Low Birth Weight Births .06 .02 .08 .02 .07 .01 .06 .01 .04 .01 
Percentage of Preterm Births .10 .02 .13 .02 .11 .02 .10 .01 .08 .01 
Total Number of Births 48,236 41,240 52,030 51,191 51,495 42,189 43,272 35,315 46,696 36,469 
Average Maternal Age 27.60 2.85 24.28 1.51 25.86 0.80 27.92 0.69 31.55 0.72 
Average Paternal Age 30.43 2.33 28.04 1.37 28.95 0.89 30.55 0.77 33.62 0.86 
Percentage of Births
 To married parents 

.62 

.22 

.37 

.08 

.49 

.09 

.64 

.09 

.92 

.03 
 To Black mothers .14 .11 .16 .12 .19 .12 .16 .10 .07 .05 
 To AI/AN mothers .01 .03 .01 .04 .01 .03 .01 .02 .00 .01 
 To Asian mothers .06 .07 .03 .04 .04 .04 .04 .05 .11 .08 
 To Hispanic mothers .24 .23 .50 .26 .25 .20 .18 .15 .09 .07 
 To White mothers .55 .23 .30 .19 .51 .19 .60 .17 .73 .13 
State-Level Variables           
 Total per-child spendinga 6.97 2.16         
 Per-child spending on cash income supporta 2.88 1.11         
 Per-child spending on tax creditsa 1.26 0.38         
 Per-child spending on healtha 2.33 0.87         
 Per-child spending on housinga 0.50 0.30         
 Unemployment rate (%) 5.88 1.96         
 Poverty rate (%) 13.27 2.95         
 Minimum wage ($) 6.29 1.39         
 Proportion of Black residents .12 .08         
 Proportion of Hispanic residents .16 .13         
 Proportion of residents with a college degree 
.28 

.05 
        
 Proportion of states with a Democratic governor 
.42 

.50 
        
Full SampleLess Than High SchoolHigh SchoolSome CollegeCollege Degree+
Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD 
Percentage of Low Birth Weight Births .06 .02 .08 .02 .07 .01 .06 .01 .04 .01 
Percentage of Preterm Births .10 .02 .13 .02 .11 .02 .10 .01 .08 .01 
Total Number of Births 48,236 41,240 52,030 51,191 51,495 42,189 43,272 35,315 46,696 36,469 
Average Maternal Age 27.60 2.85 24.28 1.51 25.86 0.80 27.92 0.69 31.55 0.72 
Average Paternal Age 30.43 2.33 28.04 1.37 28.95 0.89 30.55 0.77 33.62 0.86 
Percentage of Births
 To married parents 

.62 

.22 

.37 

.08 

.49 

.09 

.64 

.09 

.92 

.03 
 To Black mothers .14 .11 .16 .12 .19 .12 .16 .10 .07 .05 
 To AI/AN mothers .01 .03 .01 .04 .01 .03 .01 .02 .00 .01 
 To Asian mothers .06 .07 .03 .04 .04 .04 .04 .05 .11 .08 
 To Hispanic mothers .24 .23 .50 .26 .25 .20 .18 .15 .09 .07 
 To White mothers .55 .23 .30 .19 .51 .19 .60 .17 .73 .13 
State-Level Variables           
 Total per-child spendinga 6.97 2.16         
 Per-child spending on cash income supporta 2.88 1.11         
 Per-child spending on tax creditsa 1.26 0.38         
 Per-child spending on healtha 2.33 0.87         
 Per-child spending on housinga 0.50 0.30         
 Unemployment rate (%) 5.88 1.96         
 Poverty rate (%) 13.27 2.95         
 Minimum wage ($) 6.29 1.39         
 Proportion of Black residents .12 .08         
 Proportion of Hispanic residents .16 .13         
 Proportion of residents with a college degree 
.28 

.05 
        
 Proportion of states with a Democratic governor 
.42 

.50 
        

Note: The following state–year observations were excluded: Alaska, 2008 less than high school; Rhode Island, 2008 less than high school and high school, and 2009 less than high school; Washington, D.C., 1997–2016 all education categories when controlling for Democratic governor. AI = American Indian. AN = Alaska Native.

a Spending is reported in $1,000s.

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