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Table 1

Data sets and data sources

VariablesN (cities)Years CoveredCommentSource
Annual Mortality, Cause- and Race-Specific 70 1900–1930 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities
 
U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Annual Mortality, Cause-, Race-, and Age-Specific 20 1900–1930 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Monthly Mortality, Cause- and Race-Specific 20 1910–1920 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Population Counts, Cause- and Race-Specific 1,205 1900–1930 Log-interpolated values for intercensal years based on 1910 and 1930 census counts U.S. Department of Commerce/IPUMS 
City Characteristics, Including Residential Density, Residential Segregation, Illiteracy Rates, and Share of Foreign-born Residents Up to 881 1900–1930 Density measures are estimated on the basis of 1% census samples; number of cities in the data set varies between 329 (for residential density estimates) and 881 (for residential segregation indices) U.S. Department of Commerce/IPUMS 
Childhood Urban Residency Rates, Race-Specific 601 1900–1910 Low percentage of linked census records may distort estimated rates Census Linking Project/IPUMS 
NPIs 52 1918–1919 — Original data collection through newspapers.com 
NPIs (alternative measures) 43 1918–1919 Cause- and race-specific mortality data are available for 18 cities in this data set Markel et al. (2007)  
Spring Wave Influenza Mortality (alternative measure) 45 1918 — Crosby (2003)  
Infant Mortality, City-Specific 43 1910 — Collins (1930)  
Air Pollution and Infant Mortality, City-Specific 878 1915–1925 Missing data for some cities/years; air pollution is calculated from local coal-fired electricity generation capacity Clay et al. (2019)  
VariablesN (cities)Years CoveredCommentSource
Annual Mortality, Cause- and Race-Specific 70 1900–1930 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities
 
U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Annual Mortality, Cause-, Race-, and Age-Specific 20 1900–1930 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Monthly Mortality, Cause- and Race-Specific 20 1910–1920 Limited to states and cities that were included in the Death Registration Area in 1918; pre-1918 data are missing for some cities U.S. Department of Commerce (digitized by research team) 
Population Counts, Cause- and Race-Specific 1,205 1900–1930 Log-interpolated values for intercensal years based on 1910 and 1930 census counts U.S. Department of Commerce/IPUMS 
City Characteristics, Including Residential Density, Residential Segregation, Illiteracy Rates, and Share of Foreign-born Residents Up to 881 1900–1930 Density measures are estimated on the basis of 1% census samples; number of cities in the data set varies between 329 (for residential density estimates) and 881 (for residential segregation indices) U.S. Department of Commerce/IPUMS 
Childhood Urban Residency Rates, Race-Specific 601 1900–1910 Low percentage of linked census records may distort estimated rates Census Linking Project/IPUMS 
NPIs 52 1918–1919 — Original data collection through newspapers.com 
NPIs (alternative measures) 43 1918–1919 Cause- and race-specific mortality data are available for 18 cities in this data set Markel et al. (2007)  
Spring Wave Influenza Mortality (alternative measure) 45 1918 — Crosby (2003)  
Infant Mortality, City-Specific 43 1910 — Collins (1930)  
Air Pollution and Infant Mortality, City-Specific 878 1915–1925 Missing data for some cities/years; air pollution is calculated from local coal-fired electricity generation capacity Clay et al. (2019)  

Note: NPI = nonpharmaceutical intervention.

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