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Table 4

Mechanism: Maternal nutrition is worse for lower-ranking mothers

BMIUnderweight
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Lower −0.489** −0.437* −0.317 0.0505* 0.076** 0.052 
 (0.134) (0.180) (0.188) (0.021) (0.028) (0.029) 
Height (in cm)  −0.048* −0.044*  0.006* 0.006 
  (0.019) (0.019)  (0.003) (0.003) 
Age at Measurement  0.012 −0.022  0.007 0.012* 
  (0.034) (0.040)  (0.005) (0.006) 
Currently Breastfeeding   −0.023   0.010 
   (0.305)   (0.044) 
Currently Pregnant   1.375**   −0.127* 
   (0.339)   (0.051) 
Months Since Last Birth   0.001   −0.004 
   (0.009)   (0.001) 
n (mothers in NFHS-3 or NFHS-4) 1,744 1,744 1,742 1,744 1,744 1,742 
BMIUnderweight
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Lower −0.489** −0.437* −0.317 0.0505* 0.076** 0.052 
 (0.134) (0.180) (0.188) (0.021) (0.028) (0.029) 
Height (in cm)  −0.048* −0.044*  0.006* 0.006 
  (0.019) (0.019)  (0.003) (0.003) 
Age at Measurement  0.012 −0.022  0.007 0.012* 
  (0.034) (0.040)  (0.005) (0.006) 
Currently Breastfeeding   −0.023   0.010 
   (0.305)   (0.044) 
Currently Pregnant   1.375**   −0.127* 
   (0.339)   (0.051) 
Months Since Last Birth   0.001   −0.004 
   (0.009)   (0.001) 
n (mothers in NFHS-3 or NFHS-4) 1,744 1,744 1,742 1,744 1,744 1,742 

Notes: Each observation is a mother of one of the children in the height regressions of the NFHS-3 or NFHS-4 (combined here into one sample). The dependent variable is body mass index (BMI) or an indicator for being underweight (BMI <18.5); these were measured at the time of the survey, not when the child was in utero. Each confidence interval and coefficient estimate corresponds to β^ in a separate regression estimate of yihv=β lowerihv+αhv+ Xihvθ+δihv+ϵihv, where y is a measure of maternal nutrition, lower is an indicator for being the lower-ranking mother, α  represents household (h) fixed effects, and X are other controls as specified. Standard errors, clustered by village (v), are shown in parentheses.

p < .10; *p < .05; **p < .01

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