Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Summary statistics by fixed-effects subgroup

NFHS-3 (2005–2006)NFHS-4 (2015–2016)
All RuralFE SampleFE HigherFE LowerAll RuralFE SampleFE HigherFE Lower
Height-for-Age z Score −1.85 −1.72 −1.72 −1.72 −1.56 −1.44 −1.47 −1.41 
n 26,065 1,011 530 481 171,519 1,308 655 653 
IMR 67.75 66.64 63.02 71.92 47.49 37.49 38.30 36.43 
NNMR 45.03 46.76 45.94 47.95 33.54 28.25 29.20 27.01 
PNMR 23.14 20.86 17.90 25.18 14.49 9.51 9.37 9.68 
n 101,336 2,866 1,698 1,168 609,691 3,681 2,089 1,592 
Age (in months) 29.87 26.48 29.78 22.85 29.90 28.30 31.92 24.66 
Girl .48 .46 .46 .45 .48 .48 .44 .52 
Mother's Height (in cm) 151.71 152.76 152.52 153.02 151.53 152.50 152.48 152.52 
Mother's BMI 19.72 19.85 19.99 19.70 20.78 21.00 21.21 20.79 
Mother's Age at Birth 24.70 22.78 24.13 21.29 25.06 23.81 25.10 22.51 
Mother's Age at Marriage 17.92 18.06 18.12 18.00 19.10 19.37 19.44 19.30 
Mother Has Any Education .51 .66 .65 .68 .65 .76 .74 .78 
Birth Order 2.82 2.04 2.45 1.60 2.34 1.85 2.18 1.53 
Sibsize (siblings ever born) 3.14 2.34 2.78 1.85 2.64 2.13 2.45 1.81 
Household Birth Order 3.69 4.75 4.52 5.01 3.12 4.28 4.02 4.53 
Firstborn to Mother .28 .41 .25 .58 .35 .46 .32 .60 
Mother Has Some Say 2.34 1.59 1.63 1.53 2.78 2.58 2.60 2.56 
Father's Height (in cm) 163.79 165.82 165.67 165.96 163.28 164.45 164.28 164.61 
Father's Education 6.08 8.20 8.16 8.24 7.21 8.71 8.89 8.52 
Home Birth .68 .58 .63 .53 .27 .19 .20 .17 
C-section .06 .09 .07 .10 .11 .12 .11 .13 
NFHS-3 (2005–2006)NFHS-4 (2015–2016)
All RuralFE SampleFE HigherFE LowerAll RuralFE SampleFE HigherFE Lower
Height-for-Age z Score −1.85 −1.72 −1.72 −1.72 −1.56 −1.44 −1.47 −1.41 
n 26,065 1,011 530 481 171,519 1,308 655 653 
IMR 67.75 66.64 63.02 71.92 47.49 37.49 38.30 36.43 
NNMR 45.03 46.76 45.94 47.95 33.54 28.25 29.20 27.01 
PNMR 23.14 20.86 17.90 25.18 14.49 9.51 9.37 9.68 
n 101,336 2,866 1,698 1,168 609,691 3,681 2,089 1,592 
Age (in months) 29.87 26.48 29.78 22.85 29.90 28.30 31.92 24.66 
Girl .48 .46 .46 .45 .48 .48 .44 .52 
Mother's Height (in cm) 151.71 152.76 152.52 153.02 151.53 152.50 152.48 152.52 
Mother's BMI 19.72 19.85 19.99 19.70 20.78 21.00 21.21 20.79 
Mother's Age at Birth 24.70 22.78 24.13 21.29 25.06 23.81 25.10 22.51 
Mother's Age at Marriage 17.92 18.06 18.12 18.00 19.10 19.37 19.44 19.30 
Mother Has Any Education .51 .66 .65 .68 .65 .76 .74 .78 
Birth Order 2.82 2.04 2.45 1.60 2.34 1.85 2.18 1.53 
Sibsize (siblings ever born) 3.14 2.34 2.78 1.85 2.64 2.13 2.45 1.81 
Household Birth Order 3.69 4.75 4.52 5.01 3.12 4.28 4.02 4.53 
Firstborn to Mother .28 .41 .25 .58 .35 .46 .32 .60 
Mother Has Some Say 2.34 1.59 1.63 1.53 2.78 2.58 2.60 2.56 
Father's Height (in cm) 163.79 165.82 165.67 165.96 163.28 164.45 164.28 164.61 
Father's Education 6.08 8.20 8.16 8.24 7.21 8.71 8.89 8.52 
Home Birth .68 .58 .63 .53 .27 .19 .20 .17 
C-section .06 .09 .07 .10 .11 .12 .11 .13 

Notes: The “all rural” sample is not used in our analysis but is included for comparison. FE stands for household fixed effects. For all control variables, the sample is the height-for-age sample. The height-for-age z scores use the 2006 WHO reference standard. IMR (infant mortality rate) and NNMR (neonatal mortality rate) are indicators for number of deaths in the first year and month, respectively, per 1,000 live births. PNMR (postneonatal mortality rate) is an indicator for number of deaths in Months 1 to 11 per 1,000 live births. “Mother has some say” is a count of four decision situations included in the DHS questionnaire in which she reported having some decision-making power.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal