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Table 3

Coefficients from a path model testing mechanisms of skin tone disparities in health returns to educational attainment: Add Health, Waves IV and V

Unfair TreatmentSubjective Social StatusC-Reactive ProteinSelf-rated Health
bSEpbSEpbSEpbSEp
Educationa −0.083 (0.013) *** 0.310 (0.033) *** –.0161 (0.025) *** 0.123 (0.018) *** 
Race/Skin Tone             
 White (ref.) —   —   —   —   
 BA light 0.084 (0.054)  −0.012 (0.122)  0.307 (0.118) ** −0.181 (0.082) * 
 BA medium 0.151 (0.057) ** 0.011 (0.114)  0.060 (0.118)  −0.060 (0.059)  
 BA dark 0.135 (0.045) ** 0.190 (0.091) * 0.136 (0.070)  −0.027 (0.049)  
Interactions             
 BA light × education 0.068 (0.040)  −0.137 (0.100)  0.087 (0.120)  0.062 (0.057)  
 BA medium × education 0.116 (0.031) *** 0.065 (0.091)  0.062 (0.101)  −0.042 (0.042)  
 BA dark × education 0.121 (0.030) *** −0.217 (0.092) * 0.106 (0.062)  0.007 (0.038)  
Mechanisms             
 Unfair treatment —   −1.101 (0.111) *** −0.028 (0.107)  −0.580 (0.093) *** 
 Subjective social status —   —   −0.040 (0.015) ** 0.043 (0.011) *** 
 C-reactive protein —   —   —   −0.127 (0.012) *** 
Covariates             
 Age 0.005 (0.005)  0.023 (0.014)  0.018 (0.012)  −0.022 (0.007) ** 
 Female −0.069 (0.023) ** 0.019 (0.052)  0.535 (0.044) *** 0.134 (0.036) *** 
 Occupational prestige −0.095 (0.049)  0.644 (0.139) *** 0.102 (0.126)  0.099 (0.079)  
 Personal income −0.025 (0.007) *** 0.182 (0.014) *** −0.013 (0.012)  0.046 (0.007) *** 
 Preexisting conditions 0.064 (0.012) *** −0.037 (0.024)  0.141 (0.020) *** −0.065 (0.015) *** 
Intercept 0.661 (0.158) *** 6.382 (0.402) *** −0.028 (0.388)  4.800 (0.252) *** 
R2 .149 (.022) *** .287 (.017) *** .081 (.007) *** .234 (.015) *** 
Unfair TreatmentSubjective Social StatusC-Reactive ProteinSelf-rated Health
bSEpbSEpbSEpbSEp
Educationa −0.083 (0.013) *** 0.310 (0.033) *** –.0161 (0.025) *** 0.123 (0.018) *** 
Race/Skin Tone             
 White (ref.) —   —   —   —   
 BA light 0.084 (0.054)  −0.012 (0.122)  0.307 (0.118) ** −0.181 (0.082) * 
 BA medium 0.151 (0.057) ** 0.011 (0.114)  0.060 (0.118)  −0.060 (0.059)  
 BA dark 0.135 (0.045) ** 0.190 (0.091) * 0.136 (0.070)  −0.027 (0.049)  
Interactions             
 BA light × education 0.068 (0.040)  −0.137 (0.100)  0.087 (0.120)  0.062 (0.057)  
 BA medium × education 0.116 (0.031) *** 0.065 (0.091)  0.062 (0.101)  −0.042 (0.042)  
 BA dark × education 0.121 (0.030) *** −0.217 (0.092) * 0.106 (0.062)  0.007 (0.038)  
Mechanisms             
 Unfair treatment —   −1.101 (0.111) *** −0.028 (0.107)  −0.580 (0.093) *** 
 Subjective social status —   —   −0.040 (0.015) ** 0.043 (0.011) *** 
 C-reactive protein —   —   —   −0.127 (0.012) *** 
Covariates             
 Age 0.005 (0.005)  0.023 (0.014)  0.018 (0.012)  −0.022 (0.007) ** 
 Female −0.069 (0.023) ** 0.019 (0.052)  0.535 (0.044) *** 0.134 (0.036) *** 
 Occupational prestige −0.095 (0.049)  0.644 (0.139) *** 0.102 (0.126)  0.099 (0.079)  
 Personal income −0.025 (0.007) *** 0.182 (0.014) *** −0.013 (0.012)  0.046 (0.007) *** 
 Preexisting conditions 0.064 (0.012) *** −0.037 (0.024)  0.141 (0.020) *** −0.065 (0.015) *** 
Intercept 0.661 (0.158) *** 6.382 (0.402) *** −0.028 (0.388)  4.800 (0.252) *** 
R2 .149 (.022) *** .287 (.017) *** .081 (.007) *** .234 (.015) *** 

Notes: N = 7,371. Coefficients are based on the model depicted in Figure 2. Unstandardized linear regression coefficients (b) are reported with robust standard errors clustered by Wave I school in parentheses. Coefficients are weighted and derived with full information maximum likelihood procedures. All exogenous variables are recorded at Wave IV except skin tone (Wave III) and unfair treatment (Waves IV and V). Education and income are centered on their medians. Occupational prestige is centered on its mean. BA = Black American.

a

Represents the effect of education for White respondents.

*

p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 (two-tailed)

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