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Table 1

Descriptive statistics of study variables for White Americans and light-, medium-, and dark-skin Black Americans: Add Health, Waves III–V (N = 7,371)

White (n = 5,468)BA Light (n = 268)BA Medium (n = 602)BA Dark (n = 1,033)
Self-Rated Health (range, 1–5)            
 Wave III 4.02 (0.84) 4.05 (0.85)  3.90 (0.94) ** 4.01 (0.89)  
 Wave IV 3.75 (0.88) 3.68 (0.90)  3.61 (0.91) *** 3.56 (0.94) *** 
 Wave V 3.60 (0.96) 3.47 (0.95) * 3.40 (0.96) *** 3.36 (0.97) *** 
Education (range, 0–4)            
 Wave III 1.67 (0.89) 1.67 (0.88)  1.52 (0.89) *** 1.47 (0.85) *** 
 Wave IV 2.31 (1.05) 2.43 (1.00)  2.18 (1.15) ** 2.02 (1.07) *** 
 Wave V 2.45 (1.07) 2.62 (1.08) ** 2.35 (1.16) * 2.24 (1.11) *** 
Personal Income (range, 0–10)            
 Wave III 1.34 (1.53) 1.14 (1.36) * 1.08 (1.42) ** 1.04 (1.36) *** 
 Wave IV 3.53 (2.26) 3.27 (2.04)  3.01 (2.22) *** 2.82 (2.13) *** 
 Wave V 4.70 (2.74) 4.33 (2.48) * 3.93 (2.63) *** 3.60 (2.50) *** 
Occupational Prestige (Wave IV) 100.33 (37.34) 99.55 (34.60)  95.14 (35.48) ** 89.38 (37.07) *** 
Unfair Treatment (range, 0–3)a            
 Treated with less respect or courtesy than others (x10.95 (0.80) 0.96 (0.81)  1.03 (0.85) * 1.03 (0.89) ** 
 Treated with less respect or courtesy than others (x22.03 (0.83) 2.08 (0.82)  2.12 (0.84) * 2.13 (0.88) ** 
 Receive poorer service at restaurants or stores (x31.55 (0.67) 1.93 (0.71) *** 1.97 (0.77) *** 2.02 (0.80) *** 
 People act as if they think you are not smart (x41.70 (0.78) 1.84 (0.85) ** 1.93 (0.87) *** 1.93 (0.91) *** 
 People act as if they are afraid of you (x51.52 (0.74) 1.72 (0.81) *** 1.78 (0.87) *** 1.83 (0.91) *** 
 Threatened or harassed (x61.32 (0.60) 1.33 (0.57)  1.32 (0.61)  1.37 (0.66) ** 
Subjective Social Status (Wave IV) 5.15 (1.69) 5.01 (1.69)  4.88 (1.77) *** 4.83 (1.73) *** 
C-Reactive Protein (Wave IV) 0.70 (1.33) 0.92 (1.44) ** 0.88 (1.49) ** 0.87 (1.41) *** 
Preexisting Conditions (Wave IV) 0.95 (1.11) 0.90 (.96)  0.91 (1.09)  0.79 (.97) *** 
Adolescent Self-Rated Health (Wave I) 3.92 (0.88) 3.94 (0.88)  3.90 (0.94)  3.93 (0.94)  
White (n = 5,468)BA Light (n = 268)BA Medium (n = 602)BA Dark (n = 1,033)
Self-Rated Health (range, 1–5)            
 Wave III 4.02 (0.84) 4.05 (0.85)  3.90 (0.94) ** 4.01 (0.89)  
 Wave IV 3.75 (0.88) 3.68 (0.90)  3.61 (0.91) *** 3.56 (0.94) *** 
 Wave V 3.60 (0.96) 3.47 (0.95) * 3.40 (0.96) *** 3.36 (0.97) *** 
Education (range, 0–4)            
 Wave III 1.67 (0.89) 1.67 (0.88)  1.52 (0.89) *** 1.47 (0.85) *** 
 Wave IV 2.31 (1.05) 2.43 (1.00)  2.18 (1.15) ** 2.02 (1.07) *** 
 Wave V 2.45 (1.07) 2.62 (1.08) ** 2.35 (1.16) * 2.24 (1.11) *** 
Personal Income (range, 0–10)            
 Wave III 1.34 (1.53) 1.14 (1.36) * 1.08 (1.42) ** 1.04 (1.36) *** 
 Wave IV 3.53 (2.26) 3.27 (2.04)  3.01 (2.22) *** 2.82 (2.13) *** 
 Wave V 4.70 (2.74) 4.33 (2.48) * 3.93 (2.63) *** 3.60 (2.50) *** 
Occupational Prestige (Wave IV) 100.33 (37.34) 99.55 (34.60)  95.14 (35.48) ** 89.38 (37.07) *** 
Unfair Treatment (range, 0–3)a            
 Treated with less respect or courtesy than others (x10.95 (0.80) 0.96 (0.81)  1.03 (0.85) * 1.03 (0.89) ** 
 Treated with less respect or courtesy than others (x22.03 (0.83) 2.08 (0.82)  2.12 (0.84) * 2.13 (0.88) ** 
 Receive poorer service at restaurants or stores (x31.55 (0.67) 1.93 (0.71) *** 1.97 (0.77) *** 2.02 (0.80) *** 
 People act as if they think you are not smart (x41.70 (0.78) 1.84 (0.85) ** 1.93 (0.87) *** 1.93 (0.91) *** 
 People act as if they are afraid of you (x51.52 (0.74) 1.72 (0.81) *** 1.78 (0.87) *** 1.83 (0.91) *** 
 Threatened or harassed (x61.32 (0.60) 1.33 (0.57)  1.32 (0.61)  1.37 (0.66) ** 
Subjective Social Status (Wave IV) 5.15 (1.69) 5.01 (1.69)  4.88 (1.77) *** 4.83 (1.73) *** 
C-Reactive Protein (Wave IV) 0.70 (1.33) 0.92 (1.44) ** 0.88 (1.49) ** 0.87 (1.41) *** 
Preexisting Conditions (Wave IV) 0.95 (1.11) 0.90 (.96)  0.91 (1.09)  0.79 (.97) *** 
Adolescent Self-Rated Health (Wave I) 3.92 (0.88) 3.94 (0.88)  3.90 (0.94)  3.93 (0.94)  

Notes: Unweighted means are reported with standard deviations in parentheses. BA = Black American. Light/medium/dark = skin tone distinctions. C-reactive protein is reported in logged mg/L of blood.

a

x1 is measured at Wave IV, and x2 through x6 are measured at Wave V.

*

p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001; significant difference in means relative to White respondents using one-way ANOVA (two-tailed)

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