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Table 4

Effect of cumulative exposure compared with exposure over a single year during middle or high school among Black students

Cumulative
Exposure
Middle School
Exposure
(t = 1)
High School
Exposure
(t = 3)
SQF Exposure (ref. = very low)    
 Low −0.023*** 0.001 −0.024** 
  (0.006) (0.011) (0.009) 
 Average −0.051*** 0.005 −0.038*** 
  (0.007) (0.011) (0.010) 
 High −0.066*** −0.004 −0.050** 
  (0.009) (0.012) (0.011) 
 Very high −0.088*** −0.015 −0.054*** 
 (0.013) (0.014) (0.014) 
Student and Neighborhood Characteristics ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Cohort Fixed Effects ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Precinct Fixed Effects ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Number of Observations 85,490 85,490 85,490 
Cumulative
Exposure
Middle School
Exposure
(t = 1)
High School
Exposure
(t = 3)
SQF Exposure (ref. = very low)    
 Low −0.023*** 0.001 −0.024** 
  (0.006) (0.011) (0.009) 
 Average −0.051*** 0.005 −0.038*** 
  (0.007) (0.011) (0.010) 
 High −0.066*** −0.004 −0.050** 
  (0.009) (0.012) (0.011) 
 Very high −0.088*** −0.015 −0.054*** 
 (0.013) (0.014) (0.014) 
Student and Neighborhood Characteristics ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Cohort Fixed Effects ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Precinct Fixed Effects ✔ ✔ ✔ 
Number of Observations 85,490 85,490 85,490 

Notes: The difference in effect size between cumulative and middle school exposure is statistically significant at the 0.01 level for the coefficients “average,” “high,” and “very high.” For cumulative compared with high school exposure, the difference in effect size is statistically significant at the .05 level for the coefficient “very high.” SQF = Stop, Question, and Frisk.

**

p < .01; ***p < .001

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