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Table 1

Descriptive summary statistics for key variables of New York City public school students

VariableAllBlackLatinoWhite
Number of Students 231,177 85,490 109,291 36,396 
Percentage High School Graduation 80.6 79.0 78.6 90.3 
Cumulative Exposure to Policing and Crime     
 Neighborhood police stops (fall, number) 794.8 950.9 838.5 296.9 
 Neighborhood police stops (fall, %)     
  Very low (first quintile) 20.0 12.8 15.3 51.4 
  Low (second quintile) 20.0 17.2 19.6 27.6 
  Average (third quintile) 20.0 21.5 21.2 12.9 
  High (fourth quintile) 20.0 23.5 22.2 5.3 
  Very high (fifth quintile) 20.0 25.0 21.8 2.8 
 Neighborhood low-level arrests (fall) 480.5 520.6 544.2 194.6 
 Neighborhood violent crime (spring) 72.6 83.4 79.1 27.7 
 Neighborhood property crime (spring) 91.5 93.1 94.5 78.6 
 Neighborhood misdemeanor crime (spring) 441.1 467.9 481.5 257.2 
 School exposure to police stops (full year) 726.5 840.8 760.7 354.8 
Neighborhood Characteristics (measured at t = 1)     
 Avg. population 4,875 4,570 5,180 4,671 
 Avg. concentrated disadvantage 0.5 0.7 0.6 −0.5 
 Avg. residential instability 0.3 0.3 0.6 −0.5 
 Avg. % White 20.7 8.6 16.6 61.6 
 Avg. % Black 32.6 58.0 21.6 6.4 
 Avg. % Latino 36.2 26.9 50.0 16.6 
 Avg. % Asian 8.3 4.2 9.7 13.8 
Student Characteristics     
 Percentage female 51.3 52.9 50.8 49.1 
 Percentage free/reduced lunch 83.4 89.7 88.4 54.0 
 Percentage English learner status 25.3 3.5 44.5 19.1 
 Avg. ELA score 654.1 652.2 650.5 669.6 
 Avg. mathematics score 666.1 660.9 663.2 687.3 
VariableAllBlackLatinoWhite
Number of Students 231,177 85,490 109,291 36,396 
Percentage High School Graduation 80.6 79.0 78.6 90.3 
Cumulative Exposure to Policing and Crime     
 Neighborhood police stops (fall, number) 794.8 950.9 838.5 296.9 
 Neighborhood police stops (fall, %)     
  Very low (first quintile) 20.0 12.8 15.3 51.4 
  Low (second quintile) 20.0 17.2 19.6 27.6 
  Average (third quintile) 20.0 21.5 21.2 12.9 
  High (fourth quintile) 20.0 23.5 22.2 5.3 
  Very high (fifth quintile) 20.0 25.0 21.8 2.8 
 Neighborhood low-level arrests (fall) 480.5 520.6 544.2 194.6 
 Neighborhood violent crime (spring) 72.6 83.4 79.1 27.7 
 Neighborhood property crime (spring) 91.5 93.1 94.5 78.6 
 Neighborhood misdemeanor crime (spring) 441.1 467.9 481.5 257.2 
 School exposure to police stops (full year) 726.5 840.8 760.7 354.8 
Neighborhood Characteristics (measured at t = 1)     
 Avg. population 4,875 4,570 5,180 4,671 
 Avg. concentrated disadvantage 0.5 0.7 0.6 −0.5 
 Avg. residential instability 0.3 0.3 0.6 −0.5 
 Avg. % White 20.7 8.6 16.6 61.6 
 Avg. % Black 32.6 58.0 21.6 6.4 
 Avg. % Latino 36.2 26.9 50.0 16.6 
 Avg. % Asian 8.3 4.2 9.7 13.8 
Student Characteristics     
 Percentage female 51.3 52.9 50.8 49.1 
 Percentage free/reduced lunch 83.4 89.7 88.4 54.0 
 Percentage English learner status 25.3 3.5 44.5 19.1 
 Avg. ELA score 654.1 652.2 650.5 669.6 
 Avg. mathematics score 666.1 660.9 663.2 687.3 

Note: All continuous variables are standardized for the analysis.

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