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Table 2

Linear regression models for nonhome exposures, with cluster robust standard errors

Concentrated DisadvantageProportion Black
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
A. Nonhome Concentrated Disadvantage and % Black 
Respondent Black (vs. White) 0.902*** 0.166* 0.117 0.093 0.305*** 0.090*** 0.094*** 0.091*** 
    (0.077) (0.068) (0.074) (0.084) (0.017) (0.016) (0.018) (0.017) 
Neighborhood-Level Measures         
 Tract concentrated disadvantage  0.407*** 0.499***   0.019 −0.004  
      (0.047) (0.066)   (0.012) (0.016)  
 Tract proportion Black      0.357*** 0.411***  
         (0.040) (0.047)  
Constant −0.170 0.292 0.909 0.210 0.139** 0.082 −0.022 0.321* 
    (0.226) (0.443) (0.587) (0.743) (0.048) (0.086) (0.131) (0.136) 
Age and Sex ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Control Variables  ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Home Tract Fixed Effects    ✓    ✓ 
N: Neighborhood Level 178 89 89 89 178 178 89 89 
N: Individual Level 1,180 674 674 674 1,180 1,180 674 674 
 Collective Efficacy ln(violent crime) 
 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 
B. Nonhome Collective Efficacy and ln(violent crime) 
Respondent Black (vs. White) −1.062*** −0.286*** −0.277*** −0.228** 1.435*** 0.249*** 0.226** 0.171* 
    (0.086) (0.063) (0.074) (0.072) (0.123) (0.061) (0.072) (0.076) 
Neighborhood-Level Measures         
 Tract concentrated disadvantage  −0.054 −0.025   0.135* 0.176*  
      (0.043) (0.106)   (0.061) (0.073)  
 Tract collective efficacy  0.473*** 0.503***      
      (0.059) (0.119)      
 ln(tract violent crime rate)      0.586*** 0.654***  
         (0.062) (0.053)  
Constant 0.419 −0.390 −0.478 0.263 −0.201 −0.521 −0.423 1.159 
    (0.231) (0.402) (0.564) (0.653) (0.293) (0.448) (0.593) (0.893) 
Age and Sex ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Control Variables  ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Home Tract Fixed Effects    ✓    ✓ 
N: Neighborhood Level 178 178 89 89 178 178 89 89 
N: Individual Level 1,180 1,180 674 674 1,180 1,180 674 674 
Concentrated DisadvantageProportion Black
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
A. Nonhome Concentrated Disadvantage and % Black 
Respondent Black (vs. White) 0.902*** 0.166* 0.117 0.093 0.305*** 0.090*** 0.094*** 0.091*** 
    (0.077) (0.068) (0.074) (0.084) (0.017) (0.016) (0.018) (0.017) 
Neighborhood-Level Measures         
 Tract concentrated disadvantage  0.407*** 0.499***   0.019 −0.004  
      (0.047) (0.066)   (0.012) (0.016)  
 Tract proportion Black      0.357*** 0.411***  
         (0.040) (0.047)  
Constant −0.170 0.292 0.909 0.210 0.139** 0.082 −0.022 0.321* 
    (0.226) (0.443) (0.587) (0.743) (0.048) (0.086) (0.131) (0.136) 
Age and Sex ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Control Variables  ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Home Tract Fixed Effects    ✓    ✓ 
N: Neighborhood Level 178 89 89 89 178 178 89 89 
N: Individual Level 1,180 674 674 674 1,180 1,180 674 674 
 Collective Efficacy ln(violent crime) 
 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 
B. Nonhome Collective Efficacy and ln(violent crime) 
Respondent Black (vs. White) −1.062*** −0.286*** −0.277*** −0.228** 1.435*** 0.249*** 0.226** 0.171* 
    (0.086) (0.063) (0.074) (0.072) (0.123) (0.061) (0.072) (0.076) 
Neighborhood-Level Measures         
 Tract concentrated disadvantage  −0.054 −0.025   0.135* 0.176*  
      (0.043) (0.106)   (0.061) (0.073)  
 Tract collective efficacy  0.473*** 0.503***      
      (0.059) (0.119)      
 ln(tract violent crime rate)      0.586*** 0.654***  
         (0.062) (0.053)  
Constant 0.419 −0.390 −0.478 0.263 −0.201 −0.521 −0.423 1.159 
    (0.231) (0.402) (0.564) (0.653) (0.293) (0.448) (0.593) (0.893) 
Age and Sex ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Control Variables  ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Home Tract Fixed Effects    ✓    ✓ 
N: Neighborhood Level 178 178 89 89 178 178 89 89 
N: Individual Level 1,180 1,180 674 674 1,180 1,180 674 674 

Notes: The following variables are z-score-standardized: tract concentrated disadvantage, tract collective efficacy, nonhome concentrated disadvantage, and nonhome collective efficacy. Models control for all control variables described in the Data and Measures section. See the online appendix for full tables.

p < .10; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 (two-tailed tests)

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