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Table 2

Hypotheses and associated contrasts tested

Categoriesa Contrasted
Family Structure Hypotheses: Time With All Adult Children Combined  
 H1a–H1c. A parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children in families with only joint biological children than in families with any stepchildren. F1 > F2
F1 > F3
F1 > F4 
 H2a–H2b. Among stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children if the couple has a joint child. F2 > F3
F2 > F4 
 H3. Among stepfamilies without a joint child, a parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children if the couple has biological children from only one (vs. each) partner. F4 > F3 
Family Structure–Adult Child Type Hypotheses: Time With Each Adult Child  
 H4. A parent is more likely to spend time with a joint child in a biological family than in a stepfamily. F1–C1 > F2–C1 
 H5. In stepfamilies with joint children, a parent is more likely to spend time with their biological child if that child is a joint child with their current partner. F2–C1 > F2–C2 
 H6a–H6c. In stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time with a biological child than with a stepchild. F2–C2 > F2–C3
F3–C2 > F3–C3
F4–C2 > F4–C3 
 H7a–H7b. In stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time with a stepchild if there is no joint child in the family. F3–C3 > F2–C3
F4–C3 > F2–C3 
 H8. In stepfamilies with no joint children, a parent is more likely to spend time with a stepchild if that parent does not also have a biological child—that is, if only one partner (vs. each partner) has a biological child. F4–C3 > F3–C3 
Categoriesa Contrasted
Family Structure Hypotheses: Time With All Adult Children Combined  
 H1a–H1c. A parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children in families with only joint biological children than in families with any stepchildren. F1 > F2
F1 > F3
F1 > F4 
 H2a–H2b. Among stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children if the couple has a joint child. F2 > F3
F2 > F4 
 H3. Among stepfamilies without a joint child, a parent is more likely to spend time and spends more time with children if the couple has biological children from only one (vs. each) partner. F4 > F3 
Family Structure–Adult Child Type Hypotheses: Time With Each Adult Child  
 H4. A parent is more likely to spend time with a joint child in a biological family than in a stepfamily. F1–C1 > F2–C1 
 H5. In stepfamilies with joint children, a parent is more likely to spend time with their biological child if that child is a joint child with their current partner. F2–C1 > F2–C2 
 H6a–H6c. In stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time with a biological child than with a stepchild. F2–C2 > F2–C3
F3–C2 > F3–C3
F4–C2 > F4–C3 
 H7a–H7b. In stepfamilies, a parent is more likely to spend time with a stepchild if there is no joint child in the family. F3–C3 > F2–C3
F4–C3 > F2–C3 
 H8. In stepfamilies with no joint children, a parent is more likely to spend time with a stepchild if that parent does not also have a biological child—that is, if only one partner (vs. each partner) has a biological child. F4–C3 > F3–C3 
a

Categories are defined in Table 1. See Table A5 (online appendix) for a summary of the findings.

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