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Table 1

Percentage of married and cohabiting couples by same-sex and different-sex composition of the couple, according to survey, and corresponding differentials by sociodemographic characteristics

ACS 2019CPS 2019
Same-SexDifferent-SexSame-SexDifferent-Sex
CharacteristicMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.a
Number in Sample 6,207 4,424  633,188 83,980  276 227  34,199 4,328  
Percentage of Sample 58.39 41.61  88.29 11.71  53.96 46.04  88.81 11.19  
Sex Composition             
 Male 46.84 48.63 −1.79    41.25 41.13 0.12    
 Female 53.16 51.37 1.79    58.75 58.87 –0.12    
Household Composition             
 Couple only 66.59 73.95* −7.36 45.65 52.82* −7.17 76.09 72.90 3.18 44.98 55.36* −10.38 
 Couple and at least one biological/step/adopted child (and possibly others) 23.01 13.36* 9.65 51.12 39.20* 11.92 17.60 13.74 3.86 49.98 35.76* 14.22 
 Couple and others, no biological/step/adopted children 10.41 12.69* −2.28 3.23 7.98* −4.75 6.31 13.35* −7.04 5.04 8.80* −3.76 
Age of Younger Partner             
 18–29 15.48 35.43* −19.95 7.73 36.54* −28.81 12.20 35.59* −23.39 8.86 41.18* −32.32 
 30–39 26.10 24.13 1.97 20.13 26.53* −6.40 24.00 24.85 −0.85 20.74 25.92* −5.18 
 40–49 20.73 15.28* 5.45 20.65 16.02* 4.63 22.71 13.20 9.51 20.40 13.54* 6.86 
 50+ 37.47 24.86* 12.61 51.47 20.85* 30.62 41.09 26.35* 14.74 49.99 19.21* 30.78 
Mean Age Gap 6.18 6.11 0.07 3.75 4.47* −0.72 5.37 5.40 −3.30 3.92 5.14* −1.22 
Racial/Ethnic Composition             
 Both Black 5.45 8.00 −2.55 6.29 8.61* −2.32 7.21 10.55 −3.34 6.07 9.41* −3.34 
 Both White 68.12 62.31* 5.81 69.66 60.70* 8.96 68.99 57.11* 11.89 63.90 56.59* 7.31 
 Both Hispanic 8.36 8.85 −0.49 10.94 14.33* −3.39 5.63 8.13 −2.49 10.91 12.28 −1.37 
 Interracial/other/2+ 18.07 20.84 −2.77 13.10 16.37* −3.27 18.16 24.21 −6.05 19.12 21.72* −2.6 
Either Foreign-born 22.41 13.92* 8.49 24.51 18.62* 5.89 17.31 17.05 0.26 25.61 17.43* 8.18 
Residential History: Either Moved in Last Year 15.66 28.26* −12.60 9.30 28.83* −19.53 13.37 17.25 −3.87 10.30 21.74* −11.44 
Region of Current Residence             
 Northeast 19.51 17.46 2.05 17.09 18.04* −0.95 17.29 23.82 −6.53 16.94 17.66 −0.72 
 Midwest 16.70 18.36 −1.66 21.88 23.56* −1.68 17.51 14.84 2.67 21.52 23.54 −2.02 
 South 34.86 37.91 −3.05 37.77 33.96* 3.81 34.93 43.39 −8.46 38.28 35.23* 3.05 
 West 28.93 26.27 2.66 23.26 24.44* −1.18 30.27 17.95* 12.32 23.27 23.58 −0.31 
Educational Attainment             
 Both high school or less 35.17 41.44* −6.27 48.62 62.04* −13.42 30.47 39.46 −8.99 47.51 60.89* −13.38 
 One college 29.21 30.23 −1.02 24.58 21.95* 2.63 22.83 26.05 −3.22 24.31 21.63* 2.68 
 Both college 35.61 28.33* 7.28 26.80 16.01* 10.79 46.70 34.49 12.21 28.17 17.47* 10.70 
Employment Status             
 Both work full-time 50.32 54.38 −4.06 37.40 51.38* −13.98 48.27 50.86 −2.59 34.54 48.05* −13.51 
 One works full-time 31.97 31.05 0.92 37.82 34.75* 3.07 33.28 31.88 1.40 37.69 35.27 2.42 
 Neither works full-time 17.71 14.57* 3.14 24.78 13.87* 10.91 18.46 17.27 1.19 27.78 16.67* 11.11 
Homeowner 69.41 51.33* 18.08 80.45 46.05* 34.40 71.52 44.87* 26.65 79.25 45.60* 33.65 
Mean Household Income per Person (US$) 52,983 46,347* 6,636 39,716 30,393* 9,323 61,354 48,082* 13,272 43,655 37,803* 5,852 
ACS 2019CPS 2019
Same-SexDifferent-SexSame-SexDifferent-Sex
CharacteristicMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.aMarriedCohabitingDiff.a
Number in Sample 6,207 4,424  633,188 83,980  276 227  34,199 4,328  
Percentage of Sample 58.39 41.61  88.29 11.71  53.96 46.04  88.81 11.19  
Sex Composition             
 Male 46.84 48.63 −1.79    41.25 41.13 0.12    
 Female 53.16 51.37 1.79    58.75 58.87 –0.12    
Household Composition             
 Couple only 66.59 73.95* −7.36 45.65 52.82* −7.17 76.09 72.90 3.18 44.98 55.36* −10.38 
 Couple and at least one biological/step/adopted child (and possibly others) 23.01 13.36* 9.65 51.12 39.20* 11.92 17.60 13.74 3.86 49.98 35.76* 14.22 
 Couple and others, no biological/step/adopted children 10.41 12.69* −2.28 3.23 7.98* −4.75 6.31 13.35* −7.04 5.04 8.80* −3.76 
Age of Younger Partner             
 18–29 15.48 35.43* −19.95 7.73 36.54* −28.81 12.20 35.59* −23.39 8.86 41.18* −32.32 
 30–39 26.10 24.13 1.97 20.13 26.53* −6.40 24.00 24.85 −0.85 20.74 25.92* −5.18 
 40–49 20.73 15.28* 5.45 20.65 16.02* 4.63 22.71 13.20 9.51 20.40 13.54* 6.86 
 50+ 37.47 24.86* 12.61 51.47 20.85* 30.62 41.09 26.35* 14.74 49.99 19.21* 30.78 
Mean Age Gap 6.18 6.11 0.07 3.75 4.47* −0.72 5.37 5.40 −3.30 3.92 5.14* −1.22 
Racial/Ethnic Composition             
 Both Black 5.45 8.00 −2.55 6.29 8.61* −2.32 7.21 10.55 −3.34 6.07 9.41* −3.34 
 Both White 68.12 62.31* 5.81 69.66 60.70* 8.96 68.99 57.11* 11.89 63.90 56.59* 7.31 
 Both Hispanic 8.36 8.85 −0.49 10.94 14.33* −3.39 5.63 8.13 −2.49 10.91 12.28 −1.37 
 Interracial/other/2+ 18.07 20.84 −2.77 13.10 16.37* −3.27 18.16 24.21 −6.05 19.12 21.72* −2.6 
Either Foreign-born 22.41 13.92* 8.49 24.51 18.62* 5.89 17.31 17.05 0.26 25.61 17.43* 8.18 
Residential History: Either Moved in Last Year 15.66 28.26* −12.60 9.30 28.83* −19.53 13.37 17.25 −3.87 10.30 21.74* −11.44 
Region of Current Residence             
 Northeast 19.51 17.46 2.05 17.09 18.04* −0.95 17.29 23.82 −6.53 16.94 17.66 −0.72 
 Midwest 16.70 18.36 −1.66 21.88 23.56* −1.68 17.51 14.84 2.67 21.52 23.54 −2.02 
 South 34.86 37.91 −3.05 37.77 33.96* 3.81 34.93 43.39 −8.46 38.28 35.23* 3.05 
 West 28.93 26.27 2.66 23.26 24.44* −1.18 30.27 17.95* 12.32 23.27 23.58 −0.31 
Educational Attainment             
 Both high school or less 35.17 41.44* −6.27 48.62 62.04* −13.42 30.47 39.46 −8.99 47.51 60.89* −13.38 
 One college 29.21 30.23 −1.02 24.58 21.95* 2.63 22.83 26.05 −3.22 24.31 21.63* 2.68 
 Both college 35.61 28.33* 7.28 26.80 16.01* 10.79 46.70 34.49 12.21 28.17 17.47* 10.70 
Employment Status             
 Both work full-time 50.32 54.38 −4.06 37.40 51.38* −13.98 48.27 50.86 −2.59 34.54 48.05* −13.51 
 One works full-time 31.97 31.05 0.92 37.82 34.75* 3.07 33.28 31.88 1.40 37.69 35.27 2.42 
 Neither works full-time 17.71 14.57* 3.14 24.78 13.87* 10.91 18.46 17.27 1.19 27.78 16.67* 11.11 
Homeowner 69.41 51.33* 18.08 80.45 46.05* 34.40 71.52 44.87* 26.65 79.25 45.60* 33.65 
Mean Household Income per Person (US$) 52,983 46,347* 6,636 39,716 30,393* 9,323 61,354 48,082* 13,272 43,655 37,803* 5,852 

Sources: 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) and 2019 Current Population Survey (CPS).

a

Differential represents within-survey absolute difference between married and cohabiting couples.

*

Difference between married and cohabiting couples is significant at p < .05

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