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Table 2

Absolute and relative differences between average yearly pension income (at ages 66–75) and average yearly labor earnings (at ages 50–59) across educational groups and earnings quintiles

MenWomen
1920 Cohort1925 Cohort1920 Cohort1925 Cohort
Diff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)Ratio
Total −74.08 0.72 −66.89 0.75 −0.40 1.00 −17.21 0.88 
By Education 
 Primary −55.54 0.75 −51.56 0.77 5.30 1.06 −12.78 0.90 
 Secondary −95.57 0.70 −80.92 0.74 −13.66 0.91 −25.38 0.85 
 Tertiary −200.63 0.60 −148.09 0.68 −58.44 0.77 −52.00 0.80 
By Earnings 
 Lowest −12.10 0.90 −12.17 0.90 60.05 15.14 45.62 3.32 
 Second −46.28 0.77 −46.45 0.78 28.29 1.65 −4.76 0.94 
 Third −63.31 0.74 −62.06 0.75 −3.24 0.97 −21.89 0.84 
 Fourth −82.04 0.71 −76.46 0.74 −25.98 0.83 −42.11 0.77 
 Highest −183.41 0.62 −154.00 0.67 −63.75 0.74 −65.98 0.75 
MenWomen
1920 Cohort1925 Cohort1920 Cohort1925 Cohort
Diff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)RatioDiff. (in SEK 1,000 a)Ratio
Total −74.08 0.72 −66.89 0.75 −0.40 1.00 −17.21 0.88 
By Education 
 Primary −55.54 0.75 −51.56 0.77 5.30 1.06 −12.78 0.90 
 Secondary −95.57 0.70 −80.92 0.74 −13.66 0.91 −25.38 0.85 
 Tertiary −200.63 0.60 −148.09 0.68 −58.44 0.77 −52.00 0.80 
By Earnings 
 Lowest −12.10 0.90 −12.17 0.90 60.05 15.14 45.62 3.32 
 Second −46.28 0.77 −46.45 0.78 28.29 1.65 −4.76 0.94 
 Third −63.31 0.74 −62.06 0.75 −3.24 0.97 −21.89 0.84 
 Fourth −82.04 0.71 −76.46 0.74 −25.98 0.83 −42.11 0.77 
 Highest −183.41 0.62 −154.00 0.67 −63.75 0.74 −65.98 0.75 

Source: Authors' calculation based on linked administrative data from Statistics Sweden.

a Units are in SEK 1,000 ≈ US$125.

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