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Table 3

Chargeable and total leave used 12 months post-birth

MothersFemalesMatched ComparatorsBounding
(1)(2)(3)(4)Lower
(5)
Upper
(6)
A. Chargeable Leave       
 Birth ref. 1.052*** 0.456*** 0.566*** 0.429***  
   (0.068) (0.074) (0.082) (0.077)  
 Birth × Unexpected +12 weeks −0.369* −1.338*** −1.749*** −1.777*** −1.628***  
  (0.169) (0.156) (0.169) (0.179) (0.169)  
 Birth × Expected +12 weeks −0.594*** −1.866*** −1.667*** −1.731*** −1.580***  
  (0.093) (0.091) (0.098) (0.110) (0.104)  
 Birth × Expected +6 weeks 0.705*** −0.791*** −0.436*** −0.497*** −0.368**  
  (0.126) (0.121) (0.131) (0.143) (0.127)  
R2 .104 .243 .147 .170 .177  
 Control mean 3.073 2.477 3.303 3.183 3.125  
p(birth + unexpected) = 0  .044 .000 .000 .000  
p(birth + expected 12) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000  
p(birth + expected 6) = 0  .010 .861 .556 .548  
B. Total Leave       
 Birth ref. 6.961*** 6.451*** 6.499*** 6.352*** 6.351*** 
   (0.078) (0.084) (0.093) (0.087) (0.087) 
 Birth × Unexpected +12 weeks 8.017*** 6.790*** 6.434*** 6.297*** 6.541*** 6.633*** 
  (0.370) (0.355) (0.360) (0.376) (0.359) (0.353) 
 Birth × Expected +12 weeks 10.513*** 8.626*** 9.098*** 8.814*** 8.161*** 9.100*** 
  (0.147) (0.144) (0.148) (0.173) (0.180) (0.156) 
 Birth × Expected +6 weeks 6.798*** 4.716** 5.324*** 5.084*** 4.105*** 5.264*** 
  (0.183) (0.177) (0.184) (0.201) (0.201) (0.170) 
R2 .711 .281 .852 .846 .805 .853 
 Control mean  2.877 3.567 3.643 3.573 3.573 
p(birth + unexpected) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
p(birth + expected 12) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
p(birth + expected 6) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
Match Gender   Male Female Female Female 
Month Fixed Effects      
Month-Year Fixed Effects  
Rank Group Fixed Effects 
Location Fixed Effects 
Job Type Fixed Effects 
Number of Observations 2,424 765,687 14,454 13,081 15,705 15,705 
Number of Individuals 2,235 29,668 12,219 6,032 6,983 6,983 
MothersFemalesMatched ComparatorsBounding
(1)(2)(3)(4)Lower
(5)
Upper
(6)
A. Chargeable Leave       
 Birth ref. 1.052*** 0.456*** 0.566*** 0.429***  
   (0.068) (0.074) (0.082) (0.077)  
 Birth × Unexpected +12 weeks −0.369* −1.338*** −1.749*** −1.777*** −1.628***  
  (0.169) (0.156) (0.169) (0.179) (0.169)  
 Birth × Expected +12 weeks −0.594*** −1.866*** −1.667*** −1.731*** −1.580***  
  (0.093) (0.091) (0.098) (0.110) (0.104)  
 Birth × Expected +6 weeks 0.705*** −0.791*** −0.436*** −0.497*** −0.368**  
  (0.126) (0.121) (0.131) (0.143) (0.127)  
R2 .104 .243 .147 .170 .177  
 Control mean 3.073 2.477 3.303 3.183 3.125  
p(birth + unexpected) = 0  .044 .000 .000 .000  
p(birth + expected 12) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000  
p(birth + expected 6) = 0  .010 .861 .556 .548  
B. Total Leave       
 Birth ref. 6.961*** 6.451*** 6.499*** 6.352*** 6.351*** 
   (0.078) (0.084) (0.093) (0.087) (0.087) 
 Birth × Unexpected +12 weeks 8.017*** 6.790*** 6.434*** 6.297*** 6.541*** 6.633*** 
  (0.370) (0.355) (0.360) (0.376) (0.359) (0.353) 
 Birth × Expected +12 weeks 10.513*** 8.626*** 9.098*** 8.814*** 8.161*** 9.100*** 
  (0.147) (0.144) (0.148) (0.173) (0.180) (0.156) 
 Birth × Expected +6 weeks 6.798*** 4.716** 5.324*** 5.084*** 4.105*** 5.264*** 
  (0.183) (0.177) (0.184) (0.201) (0.201) (0.170) 
R2 .711 .281 .852 .846 .805 .853 
 Control mean  2.877 3.567 3.643 3.573 3.573 
p(birth + unexpected) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
p(birth + expected 12) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
p(birth + expected 6) = 0  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 
Match Gender   Male Female Female Female 
Month Fixed Effects      
Month-Year Fixed Effects  
Rank Group Fixed Effects 
Location Fixed Effects 
Job Type Fixed Effects 
Number of Observations 2,424 765,687 14,454 13,081 15,705 15,705 
Number of Individuals 2,235 29,668 12,219 6,032 6,983 6,983 

Notes: Robust standard errors clustered by the individual are shown in parentheses. The reference group is female Marines who gave birth during the 6-week maternity leave policy period and received 6 weeks of maternity leave for model 1; females with no birth events for model 2; the matched group of males with no observed birth events for model 3; the matched group of females with no observed birth events for model 4; and the matched group of females with no observed birth events with imputation for maternity leave for models 5 and 6. Chargeable leave is not imputed and is therefore the same for lower/upper bounding.

*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001

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