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Table 1

Summary statistics

MothersAll OthersPotential Matched Groups
Main
(1)
Imputed
(2)
All
(3)
Female
(4)
Male
(5)
Female
(6)
Female
(7)
Age at Birth 24.70 24.57 24.91 24.16 25.02 24.73 24.57 
p   .052 .000 .006 .873 .952 
Black 0.17 0.17 0.11 0.16 0.19 0.17 0.17 
p   .010 .010 .132 .720 .729 
Othera 0.13 0.13 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.11 
p   .000 .594 .921 .360 .162 
Hispanica 0.26 0.26 0.18 0.25 0.29 0.26 0.27 
p   .006 .133 .019 .926 .699 
Officer 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.08 
p   .000 .000 1.000 1.000 1.000 
Warrant Officer 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 
p   .041 .797 1.000 1.000 1.000 
Time in Service 4.90 4.77 5.01 4.17 5.20 4.97 4.80 
p   .000 .000 .005 .627 .786 
Married 0.75 0.74 0.35 0.31 0.77 0.75 0.74 
p   .000 .000 .081 .848 .844 
Divorced 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 
p   .000 .000 .926 .345 .522 
Prior Number of Children 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.19 0.36 0.31 0.31 
p   .000 .000 .431 .102 .049 
Some College 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 
p   .000 .959 .925 .970 .953 
College 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10 
p   .000 .000 .538 .545 .788 
AFQT Scoreb 59.66 59.56 64.74 63.20 58.89 59.73 59.62 
p   .006 .000 .066 .911 .902 
GCT Scoreb 102.99 102.95 110.16 105.46 103.02 103.07 103.05 
p   .000 .000 .925 .845 .789 
Comparison   Main Main Main Main Imputed 
Gender   All Female Male Female Female 
Number of Observations 2,424 2,955 9,823,488 763,263 12,030 10,657 12,750 
Number of Individuals 2,235 2,692 326,028 27,433 9,984 3,797 4,291 
F Test   1,705.13 109.20 3.03 0.70 0.70 
p Value of F Test   .000 .000 .000 .780 .777 
MothersAll OthersPotential Matched Groups
Main
(1)
Imputed
(2)
All
(3)
Female
(4)
Male
(5)
Female
(6)
Female
(7)
Age at Birth 24.70 24.57 24.91 24.16 25.02 24.73 24.57 
p   .052 .000 .006 .873 .952 
Black 0.17 0.17 0.11 0.16 0.19 0.17 0.17 
p   .010 .010 .132 .720 .729 
Othera 0.13 0.13 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.11 
p   .000 .594 .921 .360 .162 
Hispanica 0.26 0.26 0.18 0.25 0.29 0.26 0.27 
p   .006 .133 .019 .926 .699 
Officer 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.08 
p   .000 .000 1.000 1.000 1.000 
Warrant Officer 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 
p   .041 .797 1.000 1.000 1.000 
Time in Service 4.90 4.77 5.01 4.17 5.20 4.97 4.80 
p   .000 .000 .005 .627 .786 
Married 0.75 0.74 0.35 0.31 0.77 0.75 0.74 
p   .000 .000 .081 .848 .844 
Divorced 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 
p   .000 .000 .926 .345 .522 
Prior Number of Children 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.19 0.36 0.31 0.31 
p   .000 .000 .431 .102 .049 
Some College 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 
p   .000 .959 .925 .970 .953 
College 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10 
p   .000 .000 .538 .545 .788 
AFQT Scoreb 59.66 59.56 64.74 63.20 58.89 59.73 59.62 
p   .006 .000 .066 .911 .902 
GCT Scoreb 102.99 102.95 110.16 105.46 103.02 103.07 103.05 
p   .000 .000 .925 .845 .789 
Comparison   Main Main Main Main Imputed 
Gender   All Female Male Female Female 
Number of Observations 2,424 2,955 9,823,488 763,263 12,030 10,657 12,750 
Number of Individuals 2,235 2,692 326,028 27,433 9,984 3,797 4,291 
F Test   1,705.13 109.20 3.03 0.70 0.70 
p Value of F Test   .000 .000 .000 .780 .777 

Notes: The observation period is January 2013 to August 2017. Columns under “Mothers” display characteristics for month of birth by birth event for the main sample and the imputed sample. All other columns display characteristics for multiple observations per individual across months within all Marines not observed having a baby (“All”) and all female Marines not observed having a baby (“Female”). Columns under “Potential Matched Groups” display descriptive characteristics for the month of the match to mothers for males we do not observe having a baby matched to the main sample (“Male”), females not observed having a baby matched to the main sample (“Female”), and females not observed having a baby matched to the imputed sample (“Female”), weighted by match weights. The p values indicate the statistical difference relative to mothers as noted in the comparison row using robust standard errors clustered by the individual. The F test assesses whether the listed characteristics jointly predict motherhood for the given column and its noted mother comparison group.

a

Other = non-White and non-Black. Hispanic = Hispanic ethnicity, captured separately from White/Black/Other.

b

AFQT = Armed Forces Qualification Test. GCT = General Classification Test.

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