Table 2

Racial classification regimes

RegimeDescription
Black Respondents who reported Black or African American ancestry for any of their parents, grandparents, and/or earlier ancestors 
Hispanic Respondents who reported Hispanic ancestry but did not report Black ancestry 
Asian Respondents who reported Asian ancestry but did not report Black or Hispanic ancestry 
Indigenous Respondents who reported American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander ancestry but did not report Black, Hispanic, or Asian ancestry 
Residual (White/other) Respondents who were not assigned to one of the above regimes. In the full sample, 99% of people in this category have some White ancestry, and most did not report any other ancestry. In the aware subsample, people in this category have “White” and “some other race” ancestry 
RegimeDescription
Black Respondents who reported Black or African American ancestry for any of their parents, grandparents, and/or earlier ancestors 
Hispanic Respondents who reported Hispanic ancestry but did not report Black ancestry 
Asian Respondents who reported Asian ancestry but did not report Black or Hispanic ancestry 
Indigenous Respondents who reported American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander ancestry but did not report Black, Hispanic, or Asian ancestry 
Residual (White/other) Respondents who were not assigned to one of the above regimes. In the full sample, 99% of people in this category have some White ancestry, and most did not report any other ancestry. In the aware subsample, people in this category have “White” and “some other race” ancestry 
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