In his review of my book Labor Pioneers: Economy, Labor, and Migration in Filipino-Danish Relations 1950–2015, Frank Caestecker misguides the reader in the first sentence. He states, “Filipino migration to Denmark (and Europe) can be split into two different flows: labor migration and marriage migration” (Labor 18:1). That may be the reviewer's analytical position, but it is not mine. In the book I argue explicitly against this categorization. Those who came in 1960–73 called themselves the Filipino Pioneers, and the majority carried or obtained shortly after arrival work and residence permits tied to their own person—not to an employer or spouse. From 1974, when Danish authorities implemented a so-called immigration stop, it became increasingly difficult for Philippine citizens to migrate in the same way. The easiest way to gain legal access to the Danish labor market became to marry someone with Danish citizenship or permanent residence. Does that make...

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